콘솔 아키텍처

A practical analysis by Rodrigo Copetti

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비디오 게임 콘솔의 진화는 매우 흥미로운 이야기 입니다. 기존의 PC는 ‘점증적으로’ 진화하는 경향이 있는 반면, 새로운 세대의 콘솔은 완전히 새로운 방식을 도입하기 때문입니다. 이 시리즈에선 최신 기술 동향 뒤에 감춰진 것들을 볼 수 있습니다. 또, 왜 콘솔 시스템의 성능을 ‘bits’, ‘Hhz’, RAM의 크기로 요약할 수 없는지 알게 될것입니다.

이것은 개발자 매뉴얼이 아니며, 단지 각 시스템이 내부적으로 작동하는 방식을 상세히 소개한 것입니다. 최근 기술은 정말 복잡해졌다는 것을 알아두세요! 그러니 최신 글을 따라가시려고 애쓰신다면, 초기 글부터 정독하시는 게 좋습니다. 끊임없이 개선되는 많은 개념과 정의를 소개할 것입니다.

컴퓨팅에 대한 기본 지식이 있는 것이 좋겠지만, 독자들에게 쉽게 설명하기 위해 정말 애쓰며 글을 작성했습니다. 그러니 읽어보는 걸 두려워하지 마세요! 그래도 이해가 안되신다면, 참고 문헌을 보시는 게 좋을 겁니다.

가능한 정확한 정보를 전달드리려고 합니다만 글을 보시다가 오류를 발견하신다면, 이메일로 알려주세요 아니면 수정 제안 도 괜찮습니다. 이북 리더기를 사용하신다면 eBook edition을 이용해주세요.

이제 본론으로 갑시다!

3세대 generation

'8비트' 콘솔로 알려진 이 기기들은 전 세대 보다 더 정교한 그래픽과 풍부한 사운드를 가져왔습니다. 결국, 새로운 기준이 필요해졌습니다.

뛰어난 GPU 특성: 스크롤 가능한 타일 지도와 더 큰 색상 팔레트.

Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) (in English)

More than a 6502 machine

Sega Master System (in English)

Competent out of the box

4th generation

DMA, horizontal interrupts, multiple modes... These are some examples of the new concepts that brought the new '16-bit' generation, opening the door to new genres of games.

Notable CPU advancements: Multiplication and division instructions, DMA and dual-processing.

뛰어난 GPU 특성: Affine transformations and horizontal interrupts.

PC Engine / TurboGrafx-16 (in English)

A small but quick leap

Mega Drive / Genesis (in English)

New techniques of composition

Game Boy / Color (in English)

Simple and portable

Super Nintendo (in English)

Old hardware with mind-blowing features

5th generation

3D gaming has become a need but 'how' is not clear yet. The response? Every company presented their own different vision.

Notable CPU advancements: Pipeline stages and L1 cache.

뛰어난 GPU 특성: Programmable vertex pipelines, Z-buffering and perspective corrections.

Sega Saturn (in English)

What can you do with 8 processors?

PlayStation (in English)

A confident newcomer

Virtual Boy (in English)

Hidden potential with an unfortunate ending

Nintendo 64 (in English)

A constrained performant

6th generation

Most of the graphics limitations from the previous generation are no more. Portable consoles start to resemble familiar systems.

Notable CPU advancements: Superscalar architectures, SIMD instructions and L2 cache.

뛰어난 GPU 특성: Programmable pixel pipelines and anisotropic filters.

Dreamcast (in English)

One last attempt

PlayStation 2 (in English)

Overshadowing superiors

Game Boy Advance (in English)

New partnerships powered by two AA batteries

GameCube (in English)

Eloquent engineering

Xbox (in English)

A feared competitor

7th generation

Consoles have evolved into supercomputers and multimedia hubs. These machines are now more capable than just playing games, which is why security is now a critical factor.

Notable CPU advancements: Thread level parallelism and symmetrical multi-core architectures.

뛰어난 GPU 특성: Unified shader model and HDR rendering.

Nintendo DS (in English)

Novel forms of interaction

PlayStation Portable (in English)

'Portable' does not imply 'Limited'

Xbox 360 (in English)

A supercomputer for the rest of us

PlayStation 3 (in English)

A supercomputer from another planet

Wii (in English)

Unique techniques of innovation

8th generation

The entertainment market has now been conquered by cheap smartphones and tablets. Social media capabilities become the first priority of every peripheral. It's time for traditional video-game companies to renovate their status quo, and they better do it quick.

Nintendo 3DS (in English)

Abundant tech, confusing marketing

Wii U (in English)

Innovation under pressure


Roadmap

There are many consoles I could write about... If you are wondering what's next on my list here it is:

Next articles

Retro consoles / In-between the next articles

#### Personal computers repackaged as consoles

Modern consoles / More research needed

Honourable articles / For another series

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